OUTCOMES (Phase I)
Two distinct types of gut microbiota in Asians !
In the Phase I focused on school-aged children aged 7 to 10 years old, we characterized the bacterial community in fecal samples obtained from 303 school-age children living in 10 cities in China, Japan, Taiwan, Thailand, and Indonesia (Fig. 1). These microbiotas were classified into two enterotype-like clusters, each defined by high abundance of either Prevotella (P-type) or Bifidobacterium/Bacteroides (BB-type) (Fig. 2). Majority of children in China, Japan, and Taiwan harbored BB-type, whereas those from Indonesia and Khon Kaen in Thailand mainly harbored P-type. Bangkok was a mixture of BB-type and P-type (Fig. 3). This discrepancy may reflect differences in dietary habits among these countries.
OUTCOMES (Phase III)
Impact of Westernized diets on Asian gut microbiota !
The impact of changes in dietary habit on Asian children was found in an island of Philippines. The Phase III study on school-aged children on Leyte island in Philippines characterized the gut microbiota of urban and rural children in the island. Urban children who ate urbanized diets carried Bacteroides-type gut microbiota while rural children who maintained traditional dietary habit carried Prevotella-type gut microbiota (Fig. 4).
The data thus far gained by AMP suggests that gut microbiota of Asian is now being altered by the modernization of dietary habits and that we should carefully monitor the impact of altered microbiota on the health of Asian people. To achieve this objective, AMP has begun Phase IV study focusing on the linkage among modernized diets, gut microbiota, and life-style diseases.